Mod­u­lar build­ings fall into two cat­e­gories: per­ma­nent con­struc­tions – PMC (Per­ma­nent Mod­u­lar Con­struc­tion) and those that are tem­po­rary and mov­able – NPMC (Non-per­ma­nent Mod­u­lar Con­struc­tion). An archi­tec­tur­al design should be adapt­ed to these cat­e­gories so to pre­serve all advan­tages of mod­u­lar con­struc­tions, espe­cial­ly rapid con­struc­tion and pro­duc­tion of build­ings in pro­duc­tion halls using Off-site Construction.

Facades of mod­u­lar build­ings can be made from any mate­ri­als avail­able. But it is rec­om­mend­ed to choose such mate­ri­als most suit­able for mod­u­lar build­ings and for man­u­fac­ture at the pro­duc­tion site. If the facades are made at site of des­ti­na­tion, the over­all assem­bly time is extend­ed due to façade assem­bly. The type of façade cho­sen also has an impact on the demount­abil­i­ty of the build­ing and its fur­ther usage.

Facade systems

The size of a mod­ule affects its trans­porta­bil­i­ty – espe­cial­ly if it is over­sized. Leg­is­la­tion per­tain­ing to over­size trans­port varies from coun­try to coun­try. It is, there­fore, rec­om­mend­ed that the design be con­sult­ed with the man­u­fac­tur­er with ref­er­ence to the final place of des­ti­na­tion before any man­u­fac­tur­ing be under­tak­en. There is a cor­re­la­tion that applies – the big­ger the mod­ule, the quick­er the assem­bly and the more cost­ly the trans­port. The mod­ules with a clear­ance of up to 3,000mm can be trans­port­ed in a fold­ed state and those over 3,000mm as, so called, flat-packs (the floor, the ceil­ing and the walls are put togeth­er in a pack­ing which is assem­bled at the site of instal­la­tion). Mod­ules are pro­ducible with the exter­nal dimen­sions of up to 12.0m x 4.0m x 4.0m.

Dur­ing design, the side-by-side place­ment of mod­ules should be prop­er­ly laid out and the fea­si­bil­i­ty of mod­ule joints must be ensured. It is nec­es­sary to pro­vide for water drainage from the roof if no sec­ondary roof with sep­a­rate water drainage, as in the case of tra­di­tion­al build­ings, is intend­ed. A max­i­mum 0.6m over­hang of indi­vid­ual mod­ules is pos­si­ble with­out addi­tion­al changes to mod­ule frame sta­t­ics. If a larg­er over­hang is required, the mod­ule must be shored up or a spe­cial frame con­struc­tion must be designed which influ­ences the price of the build­ing and of the doc­u­men­ta­tion as well.

KOMA MOD­U­LAR stan­dard­ly man­u­fac­tured mod­ules stack up to 4 storeys high. The stack­a­bil­i­ty is also influ­enced by the select­ed mod­ule mod­el series. In the event that a mul­ti­ple-storey build­ing is required, this must be con­sult­ed with the man­u­fac­tur­er. It must be remem­bered that an atyp­i­cal design influ­ences the deliv­ery time and price of the building.

When plan­ning lay­out, it is rec­om­mend­ed to take the mod­u­lar frame assem­bly sys­tem into account. In each cor­ner of the frame, there is a col­umn, which should be prop­er­ly incor­po­rat­ed into the lay­out. Inner par­ti­tion walls should be installed with the frames or in the cen­tre of a mod­ule keep­ing in mind win­dow place­ments. A san­i­tary build­ing ele­ment should be con­fined to a sin­gle mod­ule and, in the case of a mul­ti­ple-storey build­ing, the san­i­tary mod­ules should be placed one above the other.

It is typ­i­cal for mod­u­lar con­struc­tions that indi­vid­ual mod­ules are self-bear­ing, there­fore, it is not nec­es­sary to use foun­da­tion plates for the foun­da­tions. Mod­u­lar build­ings can be set up on a strip foun­da­tion or on foun­da­tion feet. And foun­da­tion screws may be used where it is enabled by the nat­u­ral­ly grown soil. Some mod­ule mod­el series require an air gap under the low­er deck to pre­vent con­den­sa­tion due to humid­i­ty. In this case it is nec­es­sary to ensure prop­er ven­ti­la­tion of such foun­da­tions. In some cas­es the air gap is used as a sub­sti­tu­tion for a radon barrier.

Modul is not a container

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